Science and Religions both offer explanations for the world and for human experience. When an observation in Science or a dogma in Religion cannot be explained by reason, it is called “a mystery”; and Science and Religion are differentially tolerant of absent explanations.
A recent published paper proposes a comparative analysis of both approaches. The study concludes that: “In Science, unanswered questions are judged to stand in need of explanation, while in religion, participants are often content to leave unanswered questions as mysteries.”
Philosophers and scientists have been discussing opposition and intersection between Religion and Science domains for centuries. An anthropologist and ethnographer studied the relationships between the two, using the example of space science and its correlation with Japanese Buddhism. He reached the conclusion that tension or conflict between Science and Religion is a product of Western academic practices, linked to monotheistic religions. This conclusion is not assumed in Japanese discourses on the world. In that Tradition, Buddhism and Science are considered fundamentally compatible, our world being understood in terms of causal relationships and interconnectedness. In that context, potential for extra-terrestrial life is not considered adversarial to Religion.
The Amritasiddhi, an Ancient Indian Tradition text from the 11th-12th century, is presenting the occult physiology of man, and practices to enhance longevity.
This study paper highlights similar teachings in the later Buddhist Tradition (Vajrayana), specially linked to the Esoteric Buddhism as embodied in the Kalachakra Tradition.
Subtle centers – Chakras, subtle energies – Pranas, and subtle drops – Bindus, are the main components of this Eastern alchemy which leads the Buddhist disciple to the awakening and finally to the perfected state – Mahamudra.
The core of monotheistic religions, like Sufism, the mystics of Christianity, and the kabbalists of Judaism have a lot of common values as their foundations. This mystic hybridity has been studied and a paper was published in Dec. 2019, describing “shared space and common ground” between them. One of the key conclusion is that “love is the moral seed from which the spiritual traditions emanate“, and that “the concept of love finds its roots in the theosophies of Gregory of Nyssa and of the medieval theologian known as Pseudo-Dionysos“.
One of the latest theory on Gravitation (Quantum Gravity) is displaying a deep connection with Taoist Cosmology. A paper published by Steven M. Rosen proposes a comparison between some of the key concepts of both theories. Emphasis is put on similarities between Symmetry Breaking in Modern Physics (Strings Theory) and the Yin-Yang mechanism in Taoism. The proposed model includes the evolution of elementary particles through cycles of expansion and contraction of a spiraling universe.
A new study published in Current Biology reveals that religious belief has a negative influence on children’s altruism and judgments of other’s actions. The survey covers some of the monotheistic religions only (Christian’s and Moslem’s). This study report was later on retracted from publication, but can still be accessed here.
Madame Blavastky wrote an article in The Theosophist, Vol. V, N° 2 (1883) about morality and religion : “Exoteric religions base their morality on the hope of reward and fear of punishment at the hands of an Omnipotent Ruler of the Universe by following the rules he has at his pleasure laid down for the obedience of his helpless subjects; in some cases, however, religions of later growth have made morality to depend on the sentiment of gratitude to that Ruler for benefits received. The worthlessness, not to speak of the mischievousness, of such systems of morality, is almost self-evident.”
Brazil and Japan Least Restrictive Towards Religions; Russia and Egypt Most Restrictive
In a study by Pew Research Centers among the 25 most populous countries in the world, Brazil, Japan, South Africa, Ethiopia and the Philippines were the countries with the least restrictions and social hostilities towards religions. The survey was based on 2015 data. Russia, Egypt, India, Pakistan and Nigeria on the other hand, had the most restrictions and social hostilities.
“In India, for example, some state governments restricted religious conversion and others ban cow slaughter,” says the report.
In a survey conducted April 4-June 4, 2017, The Pew Research Center found that there are more Americans who consider themselves spiritual but not religious. 27% regarded themselves this way as compared to 19% in 2012. 48% think of themselves as both religious and spiritual, this group decreased from 59% in 2012. 18% consider themselves neither religious nor spiritual, Up from 16% in 2012.
An analysis of the Pew Research Center shows that “the number of babies born to Muslims is expected to overtake those born to Christians within two decades, making Islam the world’s largest religion by 2075.”
Source: National Public Radio (NPR); New York Daily News
Pope Francis stated that even atheists can go to Heaven so long as they are good people. The Pope stated this in a letter to La Reppublica as well as in a homily through Radio Vatican.
“The Lord has redeemed all of us, all of us, with the Blood of Christ: all of us, not just Catholics. Everyone! ‘Father, the atheists?’ Even the atheists. Everyone! . . . And we all have a duty to do good. And this commandment for everyone to do good, I think, is a beautiful path towards peace. . . . We must meet one another doing good. ‘But I don’t believe, Father, I am an atheist!’ But do good: We will meet one another there.”
These statements have serious implications on whether people need to be converted to Catholicism before they are saved. The view of the Catholic Church for centuries was that “outside the Church there is no salvation.”
In a letter to La Reppublica, the Pope wrote: “God’s mercy has no limits, if you go to him with a sincere and repentant heart, the issue for those who do not believe in God is to obey their conscience.”
The founder of Italian newspaper La Repubblica, Eugenio Scalfari, 93, wrote in an article that the Pope said during their conversation that hell does not exist. Unrepentant souls just disappear. The Vatican quickly clarified that the article was “the fruit of his reconstruction” and not “a faithful transcription of the Holy Father’s words”.
In the article, Scalfari wrote asked the Pope where “bad souls” go. The Pope, he said, replied: “They are not punished. Those who repent obtain God’s forgiveness and take their place among the ranks of those who contemplate him, but those who do not repent and cannot be forgiven disappear. A hell doesn’t exist, the disappearance of sinning souls exists.”
Such a view contradicts the standard doctrine of the Catholic Church that hell exists.
A recent report published by Prof. Stephen Bullivant Of St. Mary’s University in London showed that more and more Europeans consider themselves as without religion. “Christianity as a default, as a norm, is gone, and probably gone for good – or at least for the next 100 years,” Bullivant said. His report is based on a social survey in 2014-16 among European countries.
Czech Republic is the least religious country in Europe, with 91% of people ages 16-29 having no religious affiliation. The figures in Sweden, Netherlands and Estonia are between 80-90%. UK follows with 70%. The most religious country is Poland, but still with 17% of young adults considering themselves as non-religious.